What is the Meaning of Bethlehem?

Although the city itself is not widely accessible to Israelis today, Bethlehem has always held a special place in the history of the Jewish people. The city of Bethlethem means more to Israel than many realize today.

Bethlehem’s Significance in the Old Testament

Rachel, wife of Jacob, was buried in Bethlehem. God raised up judges from there. Boaz was from Bethlehem and welcomed in Ruth, a Gentile, into his Jewish family. Israel’s greatest king, David, shepherded sheep in its fields.

And most significantly, the Messiah was prophesied to come from this small village:

As for you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, too little to be among the clans of Judah, from you One will go forth for Me to be ruler in Israel. His goings forth are from long ago, from the days of eternity. Micah 5:2

What does Bethlehem mean to Israel?

That Bible passage shows a remarkable amount of influence coming from such a small town. It practically sits in the shadow of Jerusalem, just 5+ miles away. Bethlehem is so close to Jerusalem that on clear days you can see the hills of Bethlehem from atop the Mount of Olives.

Modern-day archaeological discoveries confirm Bethlehem was a city in the Kingdom of Judah. A clay seal found in the City of David (archeological dig in Jerusalem) reads in ancient Hebrew script: “From the town of Bethlehem to the King.” It is dated to be from the 8th or 7th century BCE.  

Today, Bethlehem is predominantly Muslim, although there is a small yet significant Christian minority. Her economy is tourist-driven, especially around the Christmas season. Church of the Nativity is a common pilgrimage destination.

The Meaning of the Word Bethlehem

In Hebrew, the city’s name is pronounced “Beit-lehem.” “Beit” means house and “Lechem” means bread – together being “House of Bread”. Jesus said at one point, I am the bread of life” (John 6:35;48) and “I am the manna that came down out of heaven… (John 6:51).

He later broke bread and gave to his disciples, saying: Take, eat; this is My body.” (Matt 26:26). Throughout the Bible, bread carries great literal and symbolic significance.

And why is the “house of bread” (Bethlehem) significant also? In this small town Gentiles were married into the Jewish nation (by the example of Ruth and Boaz), and where the Jewish king and “bread of life” was born for the world to hunger no more. That’s something to chew on for a while.

Jesus Followers in Bethlehem

While many think of Bethlehem at this time of year by singing “away in a manger” or “silent night”, our brothers and sisters in the Lord continue to struggle there year round.

Since the Oslo Accords in the mid 1990s, when Israel gave certain areas (including Bethlehem) in Judea and Samaria to the Palestinian Authority, no Jews are allowed to live there and often even visit.

Under the Palestinian Authority, the Christian population has shrunk from 80% to single digits, some say as low as 3%.

The town was known for bringing Jews and Gentiles together, for starting the Davidic royal dynasty, and the prophesied birthplace of the righteous ruler. But now, it is becoming known for hardship and exodus for those that follow Him.

Arab Christians in Bethlehem Today

Arab Christians living in the area experience discrimination and persecution from their community for being Christians and not Muslims. Some feel overlooked by western Christian groups visiting the land, who are more keen on reconnecting with their Jewish roots.

But regardless of theological and political differences, the fact remains that these are followers of Jesus. Fortunately, there is some hope to share, too!

In the last few years, a couple grassroots organizations have been addressing the needs on the ground. For example, an organization called the Bethlehem Project seeks to foster small business development and leadership training for the struggling Christian population in the House of Bread.

The streets of Bethlehem

Christmas in Bethlehem Today

Another organization worth noting is Blessing Bethlehem. It is spearheaded by Orthodox Jews joined by Arab Christians and western Christians. Together, they serve the poor and needy in Bethlehem and surrounding regions.

They do so by providing food for hundreds of families, especially in this coming Christmas season. Despite the hardships and difficulties, God is still doing amazing things in this region and there is even more to look forward to.

And let’s not forget the evangelical churches that refuse to give up. Bethlehem is home to born-again believers who have faith that their hometown will once again belong to the rulership of their Jewish Messiah. 

A Hopeful Promise

In Isaiah 60, after reading how nations will come to the light of a restored Israel and the nations will bring back the Jewish sons and daughters along with the wealth of the nations, we arrive at verse 6:

“All the flocks of Kedar will be gathered together to you, the rams of Nebaioth will minister to you; They will go up with acceptance on My altar, And I shall glorify My glorious house.”

Nebaioth and Kedar are the first and second born sons of Ishmael. In the light of the current climate, this is a profound promise! At the time that God is restoring the sons and daughters and the wealth of the land, He will also restore the sons of Ishmael.

Can you imagine a better way that God could “glorify His glorious house” than for Jew and Arab together in worship of the God of Israel?

Can Modern Israel Get Along with Residents of Bethlehem? 

God will restore all things, including Bethlehem. He has not forgotten what He has done in the “House of Bread”.

The “Bread of Life” came from Bethlehem and His desire was to break bread together with His brothers. In very small ways, the dawn is breaking, and the changes have already begun.

Just as Israel needs the Messiah, so do the Arab residents of Bethlehem. It is through His love and sacrifice that the two can find reconciliation. 

Do you want to support Arab followers of Jesus in the Middle East? Many are praying for their cities and are actively involved in sharing the Gospel with their neighbors. Through FIRM, you can encourage them in their work! 

Visiting Israel: In the Footsteps of Jesus: Free PDF Download

It is quite exciting to think that while touring Israel you are walking on the same land that Jesus did.

Whether it is the reason why you came to Israel or not, it is worth noting which locations were significant to His life and ministry. God chose this piece of land to send His Son to live on earth. Many archeological findings confirm the locations mentioned in the Bible.


Estimated reading time: 6 minutes


Doug Hershey
Doug Hershey shares from a perspective of historian and storyteller. He is the author of the best-selling book ISRAEL RISING. His new online video course, "10 Prophecies Fulfilled in Our Lifetime" connects bible prophecy with its fulfillments in Israel today. Doug is the founder of Ezra Adventures, a travel and education company, specializing in exclusive customized small group travel throughout Israel and the Middle East. For more info, go to DougHershey.co or keep up with Doug Hershey, Author on FB, IG and Youtube.
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